Are They Really Being Served? Assessing Effective Infrastructure Access and Quality in 15 Kenyan Cities
"This paper proposes a framework that examines three levels of access to infrastructure -- nominal, effective, and quality-adjusted access. Most conventional indicators measure nominal access --whether a household has physical access to a service in or near the house.
Given the significant financing gap to meet the needs of developing countries and achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals*, governments, multilaterals and other development partners are increasingly looking to the private sector to help fill this gap.
In Nairobi, Kenya, roughly 2 million people live in informal settlements, many below the poverty line. A key factor that has kept this population in poverty is a lack of electricity.
The innovative Maji Ni Maisha ("Water is Life") project is increasing access to clean, reliable water supply for rural communities in Kenya using a blend of commercial finance and an output-based subsidy. By helping small community-based water providers access the financing they need, the project is improving existing water systems and connecting poor households to piped water supply.